Hyperlipoproteinemia is a disease in which the body is unable to properly break down lipids and lipoproteins, mainly cholesterol and triglycerides. As a result, their levels are continually elevated in the blood which poses a serious health threat. Hyperlipoproteinemia can be primary (genetic) or secondary (idiopathic) and it has been associated with increased risk from heart disease.
Gangliosidosis is a group of lipid storage disorders characterized by the accumulation of lipids – gangliosides in neurons. The disease was identified both in humans and cats. Human gangliosidosis is classified into two types, GM1 and GM2. The second type is further classified into three subtypes: GM2A (Tay-Sachs disease), GM2AB (AB variant) and GM2B (Sandhoff disease or 0 variant). All of the variants of the human disease have been identified in cats except for the Tay-Sachs (GM2A).
Diabetes mellitus (DM), or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which blood sugar levels remain high for long periods of time. This occurs when there are insufficient levels of insulin produced in the body or the body isn’t responding properly to this hormone. Just like in humans, related to the modern-day lifestyle factors and obesity, a rising prevalence of diabetes has been described in cats too. Most recorded cases of feline diabetes are similar to the human diabetes type 2.
Cystinuria is an inherited metabolic disease that is relatively common in dogs, but rare in cats (Mizukami, 2016). The condition is characterized by defective amino acid reabsorption, leading to the formation of cystine stones in the kidney, ureter and the bladder (cystine urolithiasis). This can lead to urinary obstruction. In cats, only two cystinuria types have been identified so far: I-A and II-B (Mizukami et al, 2015 & Mizukami et al, 2016).